methods and findings of experiments on the visual discrimination of shape by animals.

  • 68 Pages
  • 3.26 MB
  • English
by , [Cambridge]
Visual discrimin
Other titlesShape discrimination by animals
LC ClassificationsBF241 S9
The Physical Object
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14057392M

Excerpt from The Methods and Findings of Experiments on the Visual Discrimination of Shape by Animals Methods and findings of experiments on the visual discrimination of shape by animals.

Description methods and findings of experiments on the visual discrimination of shape by animals. FB2

book has not been possible to include all work on the visual discrimination of shapes in the bibliography since much of this work is outside the scope of this review. The main concern is with experiments the primary purpose of which is to throw Cited by: The methods and findings of experiments on the visual discrimination of shape by animals.

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The methods and findings of experiments on the visual discrimination of shape by animals, [ISBN missing] Animal discrimination learning, (Edited, with R.

Gilbert) [ISBN missing] Mechanisms of animal discrimination learning, (with Nicholas Mackintosh) [ISBN missing]Alma mater: University of Oxford (BA, DPhil).

In the present experiments shape discrimination in sheep and calves has been examined using an operant method. Method Animals Three Finnish Landrace sheep were used aged 1 to 2 years.

They were housed individually in pens and fed on chopped hay supplemented with a concentrated food. Water was available ad by:   Visual discrimination tasks are commonly used to assess visual learning and memory in non-human animals. The current experiments explored the suitability of an iPad (Apple, Cupertino, California), as a low-cost alternative touchscreen for visual discrimination tasks.

In Experiment 1, rats were trained with patterned black-and-white stimuli in a. Experimental methods potentially provide the best solution to addressing causal inference (e.g., assigning disparate racial outcomes to discrimination per se) because well-designed and well-executed experiments have high levels of internal validity.

Extending Hubel and Wiesel's findings to higher visual functions. All of Hubel and Wiesel's experiments were done on anaesthetized, paralysed animals, first on cats and then on monkeys. This provided the stability for single neuron recording and a stationary retina so that successive visual stimuli fell on the same region of the retina.

Three experiments examined if visible and invisible primes could facilitate the subsequent feature discrimination of visible targets. The experiments differed in the kind of perceptual discrimination that participants had to make. Namely, participants were asked to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their form, orientation, or size.

The experiment has been widely criticized on ethical and scientific grounds. Milgram’s Famous Experiment In the most well-known version of Stanley Milgram's experiment, the 40 male participants were told that the experiment focused on the. Several experiment have demonstrated that animals can still perform visually guided behavior even following the silencing or ablation of visual cortex suggesting the involvement of subcortical areas (Glickfeld et al., ; Liang et al., ; Petruno et al., ; Prusky and Douglas, ).

These behaviors however, are either innate or, when. The aim of our experiments was to compare results obtained in blind fish with those obtained in visual species 5,6,7,8,9, by setting up two experimental conditions in a rectangular apparatus in.

Reinforcement was paired with the first visual stimulus in half of the experiments, and with the second in the remaining experiments, to cancel any effect of order. The whole experimental setup was kept at 33°C for the temperature-induced effect of Shi ts1.

The woman behind the visual cliff. Eleanor J. Gibson is best remembered for an iconic experiment, but her own story of flexibility in the face of gender discrimination may be an even more valuable psychology lesson. By Elissa N. Rodkey. July/AugustNo. Print version: page Animal experiments are essential to basic biological and medical research – cre-ating a classic dilemma as the acquisition of knowledge for the good of man-kind places a burden on animals The protection of animals is high on the agenda of most European countries and sets limits on research Infol.

Most experimental paradigms to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli.

fraction of the myriad statistical analytic methods are covered in this book, but my rough guess is that these methods cover 60%% of what you will read in the literature and what is needed for analysis of your own experiments. In other words, I am guessing that the first 10% of all methods available are applicable to about 80% of analyses.

Perception - Perception - Perceiving as synthesizing: The organization apparent in percepts has been attributed by some to learning, as being built up through arbitrary associations of elements that have repeatedly occurred together in the person’s experience.

Other theorists (particularly Gestaltists) stress the view that perceptual organization is physiologically inborn, being inherent in. Theories Template matching. Template matching theory describes the most basic approach to human pattern recognition.

It is a theory that assumes every perceived object is stored as a "template" into long-term memory. Incoming information is compared to these templates to find an exact match. In other words, all sensory input is compared to multiple representations of an object to form one.

In two experiments it was found that the difficulty of recognizing geometrically transformed text varied with the transformation imposed upon it.

Details methods and findings of experiments on the visual discrimination of shape by animals. EPUB

In one experiment the text was in English and the Ss were native speakers of English; in the second, the text was in Hebrew and the Ss were native speakers of Hebrew.

The two languages are read in opposite directions. Visual discrimination is the ability to recognize details in visual images.

It allows students to identify and recognize the likeness and differences of shapes/forms, colors and position of objects, people, and printed materials.

In order to learn to read print, students will need to develop their visual discrimination skills. A) Visual Discrimination. This protocol is based on recent mouse and rat publications (e.g., 6, 8, 13, 47, 58) with minimal changes.

A Visual Discrimination session (see Fig. 2) begins with a “free” reward delivery and magazine light illumination, indicating that a trial may be initiated (as in pretraining). After initiation, two stimuli. In this study, a computer-controlled touchscreen system was introduced to horses to investigate the visual size discrimination and shape perception abilities of these animals; the results were compared with those of other mammals that have adapted to different environments, including chimpanzees, humans and dolphins.

A set of three experiments evaluated 96 participants’ ability to visually and haptically discriminate solid object shape. In the past, some researchers have found haptic shape discrimination to be substantially inferior to visual shape discrimination, while other researchers have found haptics and vision to be essentially equivalent.

A primary goal of the present study was to understand. Results. We trained two macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on two tasks: (i) a fixation task (Fig. 1A) and (ii) a face gender-discrimination task in which they used one of two eye movements to indicate the gender of a briefly presented image of a face (Fig.

1B).The visual stimuli were presented parafoveally to the left or right of the fixation point for both tasks (). We describe a means of obtaining spectral information using the principles of physical optics and an off-axis pupil shape without requiring spectrally distinct photoreceptor classes.

The mechanism described here offers a possible solution to a long-standing puzzle in marine animals: cephalopods dramatically change color for both producing chromatically matched camouflage and.

With the growing need for reliable methods to assess farm animal welfare, a scientific method for assessing their body language would help to better understand the experience of animals and to. Little is known about the sensory abilities of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) compared with other fishes.

Despite their role as apex predators in most marine and some freshwater habitats, interspecific variations in visual function are especially poorly studied. Of particular interest is whether they possess colour vision and, if so, the role(s) that colour may play in elasmobranch.

An experiment was performed upon visual discrimination of shape by the octopus in order to test two predictions derived from a theory of visual discrimination of orientation and shape.

Two groups of octopuses were trained to discriminate between a square and a triangle and between a. While the scientific study of vision is well-advanced, a universal theory of qualitative visual appearances (texture, shape, colour and so on) is still lacking.

This interdisciplinary handbook presents the work of leading researchers around the world who have taken up the challenge of defining and formalizing the field of ‘experimental Reviews: 1. Other visual discrimination experiments comparing pigeons and humans, however, have suggested that important process differences also exist.

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Humans differ in how quickly they can find a particular "target" element in a display depending upon the elements surrounding it, making it is easier, for example, to locate a "Q" in a field of many "O"s.The eye can focus objects at different distances because the ciliary muscles push and pull to make the lens change shape.

When you look at an object that is far away, the ciliary muscles relax and the lens has a flattened shape. When you look at an object that is close by, the ciliary muscles are contracted and the lens is thickened.Making Connections: Sociological Research An Experiment in Action: Mincome Figure “Mincome” was a large-scale experiment conducted in Dauphin, Manitoba, between and to explore the effect of having a universal guaranteed annual income on .